лексикологии английского языка МГЛУ Т. В. Кононенко
старший преподавательВ.И. Барабан
English for Business Managers. = Английский для менеджеров: Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов / Сост.: Е.В. Крылов, Е.С. Пристром, Н.Ф. Шевцова, О.Н. Разумова, Т.И. Сугоняко, Н.В. Ващинская, М.В. Васильева, И.А. Попова; – Мн.: БГУ, 2008. – 296 с.
Пособие представляет собой первую часть учебно-методического комплекса по английскому языку для студентов специальности «Менеджмент». Оно включает 9 разделов (Units), предназначенных для аудиторной самостоятельной работы, а также грамматический практикум. Целью пособия является развитие всех видов речевой деятельности на основе профессионально ориентированного материала.
A business can be viewed as a system: a group of related parts organized to work together for some purpose. Management is the function that integrates the parts of this system and makes sure that they work together toward a desired purpose.
Management is a set of activities designed to achieve an organization’s objectives by using its resources effectively and efficiently in a changing environment. Resources – such as people, jobs or positions, technology, facilities and equipment, materials and supplies, information, and money – are used to accomplish the manager’s intended purpose. Effectively means having the intended result; efficiently means accomplishing the objectives with a minimum of cost.
Managers are individuals who make decisions about the use the organization’s resources, and are concerned with planning, organizing, leading (or directing), and controlling the organization’s activities to reach its objectives. An important characteristic of managers is that they do their jobs by working with and through other people.
The extent to which managers perform the functions of management varies by level in the management hierarchy.
We commonly categorize managers as being in lower, middle or upper levels of management, as shown in Figure 1; however, these terms usually apply only in organizations large enough to have specialization. Small businesses usually have one or two managers who are responsible for the diverse management duties needed to keep the business running.
Upper managers spend most of their time planning, and leading because they make decisions about the overall performance and direction of the organization. Therefore, they are usually involved in the development of goals and strategies to achieve those goals. Chief executive officer (CEO), chief financial officer, chairman, president, and executive vice president are common titles at this level.
Levels of management Middle managers are those managers who receive broad statements of strategy and policy from upper-level managers and develop specific objectives and plans. They spend a large proportion of their time in planning and organizing activities. At this level managers are usually called managers, although their titles may also bear a prefix (like sales, production, accounting and others) to show the type of managers they are.
Lower or first-line managersare those concerned with the direct production of items and delivery of service. Managers at the lowest levels are usually called supervisors, sales managers, loan officers, and store managers. All managers, however, regardless of the size of the company or their level within it, try to achieve the same thing: to work effectively with people so that the business achieves its objectives.
In order to perform the functions of management and to assume multiple roles, managers must be skilled. Robert Katz identified three managerial skills that are essential to successful management: technical, human, and conceptual. Technical skill involves process or technique knowledge and proficiency. Managers use the processes, techniques and tools of a specific area. Human skillinvolves the ability to interact effectively with people.
The importance of possessing technical, human, and conceptual skills is shown in Figure 2. Top level managers need conceptual skills in order to view the organization as a whole. Conceptual skills are used in planning and dealing with ideas and abstractions. Supervisors need technical skills to manage their area of specialty. All levels of management need human skills in order to interact and communicate with other people successfully.
Skill Distribution at various levels of management
4. Fill in the gaps using the words from the box (exercise 2).
1. There are three main __ skills that are essential to successful management.
2. __ __ involves the formulation of ideas.
3. Resources are used to accomplish the manager’s __ __.
4. Managers interact and __ with employees.
5. To achieve an organization’s __ in a changing environment it is necessary to use its resources __ and __.
6. We __ managers as being in lower, middle or upper levels of management