Tracks vary in appearance depending on the individuals size, its gait, slope steepness and type of substrate. Tracks made in snow are especially subject to variation, as melting rapidly distorts and enlarges prints.
Obviously factors such as habitat, elevation, and track size serve to separate leopard and tiger in places where they are said to occur in proximity.
Tracks indicated that male had passed within 50 m of the young and its kill (добыча) the same day of the capture.
The following day we tracked the large male and captured him some 3 miles distant.
A lion abruptly changed course, sometimes retracing its route for a considerable distance (invariably it was found that another lion or family of lions was in the area).
In such a case, stones are brought by the female to serve for the levelling of the substrate surface.
This call serves as a location-signal that helps the parents to assess the general condition of the brood and enables them to locate their young readily after they have left the nest.
These mutual displays serve as a prelude to mating.
случаться happen, occur
It may happen that the neighbouring male or an unpaired male from the floating population is carefully watching all such events.. Such a bird will try to seize the opportunity to approach the female at a moment when she is ready to copulate.
Some males who happen to be late arriving in spring are forced to make do with the territories of worse quality, i.e. small and devoid of large vertical surfaces.
Breeding pairs of Northern Wheatear not infrequently occur close to human settlements.
Much more rarely, another form of polygyny occurs – so-called polyterritorial polygyny.
смена change, rotation
~ пола sex reversal
сменять change, ~ по очереди rotate см. превращаться
сменятьс take turns
These overlap zones are used by the neighbours in turn.
смертельный mortal, lethal, fatal
смертность mortality, mortality rate, rate of mortality, death rate, loss
~дифференциальная differential mortality
~зависящаяотплотности density dependent mortality
птенцовая~ nestling loss
ювенильная~ juvenile mortality
снабжать supply (with), furnish (with), provide (with)
~питательными веществами nutruent supply
снасть gear, tackle
снег snow, осадки в виде~ snowfall
The high-arctic region has asevere polar climate with minimal snowfall.
Only in some years the snowfall is much greater.
Due to small precipitation in winter and to the frequent storms, which cause the snow to drift, large areas of the northern polar regions are quite bare of snow in winter.
The general belief thatthe regions of the northernmost Arctic are perpetually covered by snow and ice is therefore far from the truth.
хрустящий ~ squeaky snow
снежныйпокров snow cover, snow mantle
событие event, occurrence
The occurrence of polyterritorial polygyny is described for a number of the wheatear species.
Woody and forest-like vegetationonly occurred on the fringes of perennial rivers, although improverished (угнетенный) and degraded forms were present along temporary watercourses, dongas and where outcrops (of dolerit dikes) brought groundwater (грунтовые воды) to the surface.
Large areas of hillslopes in the False Upper Caroo are also covered by associations of A, with dominant association of B on gentle slopes, and of C on the steeper hillsides. These are all quite open associations with abundant grass coverage, interpersed with dwarf shrubs, low trees and patches of shrubs, all representing a sclerophyllous evergreen savanna shrub.
In the western part these woods belong to the type A, whilst further eastward the type B dominate. These are not tall woods, and average height vary between 4 and 10 m. On the numerous steep (dolerite) hillsides found between points A and B, mainly two associations predominate.
This "forest reserve" is primarily grassland: montane from 1 300 to 1 800 m. with subalpine and alpine communities above 1 800 m.
In this species, males have a rather contrasting colour pattern while females look much duller, in accordance with the idea of protective type of coloration.
соответствовать correspond to, correspond with, conform to, agree with, comply with, match
These differences between the species named obviously correspond to a progressive lowering of the stimulus threshold-value from species to species.
The Black Wheatear roughly matches in size the Rufous-tailed Rock Thrush.
соотношениеполов sex ratio
Despite a tendency towards females among juveniles, and males among yearlings and adults, sex ratios within each age class did not significantly deviate from unity, but at the population level there were significantly more adult males than reproductive females.
актуальное~ actual sex ratio
вторичное~ secondary sex ratio
дифференциальное~ differential sex ratio
differential sex ratio between the members of each sex contemporaneously in an effective breeding condition
The amplitude of this movements varieswith intensity.
выразительное~ expressive movement
зачаточное incipient movement
сигнальное~ signal movement
элементарные~ elementary motive acts, EMA
вращать (хвостом) rotate (swung) tail from side to side
When bird curious or excited, tail is frequently fanned and flicked up and down or swung from side to side through long curve—when tail moved to left, left half fanned while right half closed and vice versa when moved to right.
вилять (хвостом) wag
дёргать вбок (напр., головой) thrust outward
дёргатьвверх thrust upward, jerk upward
дёргатьвниз pull (sharply) down, вниз-вверх flip (rapidly) down and up
дёргатькрыльями flick wings, wing-flicking
rapid flicking of the wings away from the body and back of it
кивать, кланяться bow, поклон bowing; nod, bob (у ящериц)
The curious nodding of the head which is only slightly modified from the ordinary bobbing of most iguanid lizards, is frequently a part of courtship.
Неуверенные Faint, il-directed
опускать (напр., голову, хвост) bent downward, lower
опускатькрылья drop wings
отворачиватьголовуотпартнёра turn head aside (head-flaging display)
отставлять , подниматькрылья extend wings
This behavior ranges from stationary half-extended wings, through flashing half-extended wings, to the wings being extended so far that their tips are in front of the birds beak and may touch the ground. While in the latter position, the predator bird may jerk its entire body toward the prey while keeping its feet stationary.
подрагивать, встряхиваться shakе, shuffle, twist
The long, stringy barbs, which extend outward from the sides of the bird, seem to be constantly in motion. They also serve to embellish (акцентировать) wing and body shuffling and shaking—actions that are rather frequent, as in the birds of paradise.
покачивать (напр., головой) bob, bobbing of head
In most intense expression, flight intention includes various bobbing and twisting movements of the body , which oriented in the horizontal plane, with tail being flipped rapidly down and up or rotated quickly from side to side in synchrony the wing flicks
приподнимать, lift, elevate, raise
подниматькрылья stretch wings upward
разворачивать (хвост) fan, sped; tail is fanned (spread)
трепетатькрыльями quiver wings, flutter wings
хлопатькрыльями flap wings
The female will let the male come near, but tolerates his presence for only a few seconds, during which time he can perform only a fragment of his courtship-display.
Social tolerance was exhibited by females and young during the period of juvenile dependency.
Schaller found resident tiger in India tolerant of transient, but speculated that some males might defend a territory against other males.
территориальноеповедение territorial behaviour
Males establish their individual territories far apart, so that the territories of breeding pairs thereafter are widely scattered and spatially isolated from one another.
межвидовыеразличиявстепениих interspecific differences in strength of territorial prohibitions: severe (жесткие); not rigid (нестрогие)
территория territory, territory area; cм. такжеиерархиясоциальная
The distinction between defended and home-range territory cannot always be maintained in practice,
Since our knowledge of the natural behaviour of animals under the varied natural conditions of their lives is often insufficient to enable us to say to what extent others are excluded from the territory.
The unqualified term “territory” is therefore useful for such cases, and it can readily be qualified as home-range or defended as our knowledge justifies.
Etkins remark appear apt to this discussion, and I have adopted his usage of the term territory.
No defence of a territory was noted in study and transient lions, both males and females, used these territories freely.
If a territory were actively defended against an intruder then the resident would have to apprroach the intruder to either frighten it or to forcefully drive it from the area.
Both males and females invariably visit these sites and ordinarily travel much the same route, whether hunting or seemingly just traveling.