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Rakkel Ndipwashimwe, group 1. Science adviser is Evgeniya Grabovetskaya.

Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945)he carried out highly detailed studies on aluminosilicates and was the first to correctly describe their chemistry and their structure, which forms the basis of many other minerals. Vladimir wasapioneer in geochemistry the measurement and study of the distribution and migration of the chemical elements and isotopes in the earth’scrust. He gathered detaileddata on the layers of the crust, described the migration of atoms in suchlayers , tried to explain the occurrence of chemical elements in those layers andgeneral studies ,the formationof chemicalcompounds under the influence of geologic process. Vladimir was the firstscientistto recognize the tremendous potential of radioactivity as a source of thermalenergy and he was also one of the first to postulate the long term heat buildup from radioactivity asadrivingforce behind many geochemical processes. His later years were takenupwith the study of the contributions that life processes make to the atmosphere and he correctly attributed to living things the creation of the Oxygen, Nitrogen andcarbon dioxide presentin the atmosphere. Vladimir healso studiedthe effects livingthings have on the chemistry of the earth’s crust e.g. subsurfaceconcentrations of certain elements due to biological cycles. Vladimir is regarded as the founder of the theory of the biosphere e.g.: total mass of living organisms, which processand recycle theenergy and nutrients available from the environment.


Hadeel Refae, group 1. Science adviser is Evgeniya Grabovetskaya.

The timeline of chemistry lists important works, discoveries, ideas, inventions, and experiments that significantly changed humanity's understanding of the modern science known as chemistry, defined as the scientific study of the composition of matter and of its interactions. The history of chemistry in its modern form arguably began with the English scientist Robert Boyle, though its roots can be traced back to the earliest recorded history.

Early ideas that later became incorporated into the modern science of chemistry come from two main sources. Natural philosophers (such as Aristotle and Democritus) used deductive reasoning in an attempt to explain the behavior of the world around them. Alchemists (such as Geber and Rhazes) were people who used experimental techniques in an attempt to extend the life or perform material conversions, such as turning base metals into gold.

In the 17th century, a synthesis of the ideas of these two disciplines, that is the deductive and the experimental, leads to the development of a process of thinking known as the scientific method. With the introduction of the scientific method, the modern science of chemistry was born.

Known as "the central science", the study of chemistry is strongly influenced by, and exerts a strong influence on, many other scientific and technological fields. Many events considered central to our modern understanding of chemistry are also considered key discoveries in such fields as physics, biology, astronomy, geology, and materials science to name a few.

The foundations of modern chemistry were laid in the 18th and 19th centuries and further extended in the 20th century. They encompassed the development of a theoretical framework for understanding and explaining the physical and presenting chemical properties: of atoms and molecules together with the invention of increasingly sophisticated techniques for interacting with these entities in order to study and infl uence their structures and behaviors. These developments have given humanity a degree of mastery over its physical environment that surpasses the sum of achievements over the entire previous period of human history.

Chemistry ’ s contributions to human advancement need to be seen in terms of its own core role as a physical science, but also as a “ platform science ” in the context of its relationships within the group of “ natural sciences ” that includes physics and biology. Chemistry provides the basis for understanding the atomic and molecular aspects of these disciplines and, through its interfaces with a range of pure and applied sciences, underpins the dramatic advances seen in recent decades in such diverse fi elds as medicine, genetics, biotechnology, materials and energy. Hence, this discussion of the role of chemistry in the process of development is framed in the broader context of the roles of science, technology and innovation more generally.

Innovation, which may operate in both technological and social fi elds, encompasses not only the birth of an idea or a discovery, but its application in practice – taking the outputs of research and invention and using them to put new goods, services or processes into use. While innovation is sometimes represented as a straightforward linear system, in reality this is an over - simplifi ed model and innovation needs to be treated as a complex, highly nonlinear ecosystem, full of interdependences and feedback loops.

The Chemical Element: Chemistry’s Contribution to Our Global Future, First Edition.

Edited by Javier Garcia-Martinez, Elena Serrano-Torregrosa chemistry has contributed enormously both to broad improvements in human wellbeing (including enhancements of health and quality of life) and to wealth creation for individuals and nations. Some landmark examples are summarized in Table 1.1 . Early developments

in electrochemistry and synergies with physics and engineering led to methods for producing electrical energy, which has impacted on virtually every aspect of human activity. Electrochemistry also provided the basis for the industrial transformation of many materials and, in particular, for the production of metals such as aluminum and important feedstocks such as caustic soda and chlorine.

Industrial organic chemistry built on mid - 19th century processes for manufacturing dyestuffs, but by the 20th century had expanded to include the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. In parallel with advances in public health (measures for reducing the spread of infectious diseases through improved water, sanitation and vaccination; and for improving health through ensuring optimal nutrition – in all of which areas chemistry has played a major role), pharmaceutical chemistry has contributed enormously to improving life expectancy and the quality of life through the treatment of infectious diseases and metabolic disorders and the control of pain.

Chemistry has contributed to many of the advances in agriculture (e.g., fertilizers, plant growth regulators, pesticides) which have been characterized as a “ green revolution ” and which have helped to feed the world ’ s population while it grew from about 1 billion to 6 billion during the 20th century. Moreover, chemistry has given the world a wide array of new materials, including polymers, plastics, semiconductors and superconductors, with applications from fabrics and structural materials to information and communications technologies and medical imaging.What is the importance of chemistry in medicine and pharmacology?

- all the pharmaceuticals are chemical products

- many accessories for medicine are chemical products

- clinical analysis are generally, in fact, methods of chemical analysis-

- all materials in stomatology are chemical products ,etc

Conclusion: chemistry is an important flied in the society and has conributate in so many different ways in human lives.

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