II. The volume of the vocabulary. The basic word-stock Nowadays in English there are 450 000 words. Passive vocabulary is 30 000 to understand. Active vocabulary is 45 000 to speak.
The basic word-stock implies our practical vocabulary. The words in it are neutral and frequent. The basic word-stock includes root words, derivatives and compounds. The basic word-stock includes different parts of speech, native and borrowed words.
The basic word-stock is a good building material for phrases: to go mad, to go on strike, to go one’s way, to go out of fashion; to make a date, to make friends, to make a long story short, to make a scene.The words from the basic word-stock are usually pollysemantic.
III. Archaisms[ɑ:'keɪɪz(ə)m] Archaisms are words which are no longer used in everyday speech, which have been ousted [aust] (вытеснять) by their synonyms. Archaisms remain in the language, but they are used as stylistic devices to express solemnity [sə'lemnɪtɪ] (важность). Most of these words are lexical archaisms and they are stylistic synonyms of words which ousted them from the neutral style. Some of them are: steed /horse/, slay /kill/, behold /see/, perchance /perhaps/, woe /sorrow/ etc. Sometimes a lexical archaism begins a new life, getting a new meaning, then the old meaning becomes a semantic archaism, e.g. fair in the meaning “beautiful” is a semantic archaism, but in the meaning “blond” it belongs to the neutral style.
Sometimes the root of the word remains and the affix is changed, then the old affix is considered to be a morphemic archaism, e.g. beauteous/ ouswas substituted by ful/, bepaint /bewas dropped/, darksome / somewas dropped, oft / enwas added/etc.
IV. Neologisms [ni:'ɔləʤɪz(ə)m] At the present moment English is developing very swiftly and there is so called “neology blowup(взрыв)”. R. Berchfield who worked at compiling a four-volume supplement (4-хтомное дополнение) к to NED says that averagely 800 neologisms appear every year in Modern English. It has also become a language-giver recently, especially with the development of computerization. New words, as a rule, appear in speech of an individual person who wants to express his idea in some original way. This person is called “originator”. New lexical units are primarily used by university teachers, newspaper reporters, by those who are connected with mass media.
Neologisms can develop in three main ways: a) a lexical unit existing in the language can change its meaning to denote a new object or phenomenon. In such cases we have semantic neologisms, e.g. the word “umbrella” developed the meanings: “авиационное прикрытие”, “политическое прикрытие”. b) A new lexical unit can develop in the language to denote an object or phenomenon which already has some lexical unit to denote it. In such cases we have transnomination, e.g. the word “slum” (трущобы) was first substituted by the word “ghetto” ['getəu] then by the word group “inner town”. c) A new lexical unit can be introduced to denote a new object or phenomenon. In this case we have “a proper neologism”, many of them are cases of new terminology.
Here we can point out several semantic groups when we analyze the group of neologisms connected with computerization, and here we can mention words used:
1) to denote different types of computers: PC, supercomputer, multi-user, neurocomputer /analogue of a human brain/;
2) to denote parts of computers: hardware, software, monitor, screen, data, vapourware/experimental samples of computers for exhibition, not for production/;
3) to denote computer languages: BASIC, Algol FORTRAN etc;
4) to denote notions connected with work on computer: computerman, computerization, computerize, to troubleshoot (отыскание и устранение повреждений), to blitz out /to ruin data in computer’s memory/.
There are also different types of activities performed with the help of computers, many of them are formed with the help of morpheme “tele”: telework, to telecommute “to work at home having a computer which is connected with the enterprise for which one works”. There are also such words as telebanking, telemarketing, teleshopping “when you can perform different operations with the help of your computer without leaving your home, all operations are registered by the computer at your bank”, videobank “computerized telephone which registers all information which is received in your absence”.
In the sphere of linguistics we have such neologisms as: machine translation, interlingual “an artificial language for machine translation into several languages” and some others.
In the sphere of biometrics (техника идентификации личности на основе биологических характеристик) we have computerized machines which can recognize characteristic features of people seeking entrance: finger-print scanner /finger prints/, biometric eyescanner/ blood-vessel arrangements in eyes/, voice verification /voice patterns/. These are types of biometric locks. Here we can also mention computerized cards with the help of which we can open the door without a key.
In the sphere of medicine computers are also used and we have the following neologism: telemonitory unit /a telemonitory system for treating patience at a distance/.
With the development of social activities neologisms appeared as well, e.g. youthquake – волнения среди молодёжи, pussy-footer ['pʌsɪ]– политик, идущий на компромиссы, Euromarket, Eurodollar, Europarliament, Europol etc.
In the modern English society there is a tendency to social stratification, as a result there are neologisms in this sphere as well, e.g.: belonger – представитель среднего класса, приверженец консервативных взглядов. To this group we can also refer abbreviations of the type yuppi /young urban professional people/, such as muppi, gruppi, rumpie, bluppie etc. People belonging to the lowest layer of the society are called survivers, a little bit more prosperous are called sustainers, «стабильные» and those who try to prosper in life and imitate those, they want to belong to, are called emulaters «соревнующиеся». Those who have prospered but are not belongers are called achievers. All these layers of society are called VAL / Value and Lifestyle/. The rich belong to jet set that is those who can afford to travel by jet planes all over the world enjoying their life. Sometimes they are called jet plane travellers (путешественники на реактивном самолете). During Margaret Thatcher’s rule the abbreviation PLU appeared which means ”People like us” by which snobbistic circles of society call themselves. Nowadays /since 1989/ PLU was substituted by “one of us”.
There are a lot of immigrants now in UK, in connection with which neologisms