Noun: Dancing had not begun yet. – Танцы еще не начались. (b) by an infinitive

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The Gerund

The Gerund

We talk of the gerund when -ing form functions more like a noun. The word participle is used for other cases. The gerund, as a result of its origin (it developed from the verbal noun), has verbal and nominal properties. It has tense distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the gerund coincide with those of the Present Participle.

Aspect / Voice





being written


having written

having been written

The ways of translating the gerund into Russian

(a) by a noun: Dancing had not begun yet. – Танцы еще не начались.
(b) by an infinitive:
She had tea with his family before leaving.Перед тем как уйти, она выпила чаю с его семьей. It is no good refusing his proposal. – Бессмысленно отказываться от его предложения.
(c) by деепричастие (adverbial adverb):
And without waiting for her answer he left the room. – И, не дожидаясь его ответа, он вышел из комнаты.
(d) by a subordinate clause: He regretted now having come.Теперь он сожалел, что пришел.
N.B. The passive forms are nearly always rendered by a clause.
S he became conscious of being gazed upon. – Она почувствовала, что на нее смотрят.

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