Past Simple утвердит предлож. V2 = Past form вопросит предлож



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UNIT 1.

PASSIVE VOICE
Before starting this Unit let us revise the basics.

Active voice (Действительный залог) образуется:



Table 1.

Оператор + смысловой глагол

e.g. | |

Modal verbs must + Vo

should + Vo

ought + to Vo

etc.
Perfect have + V3 = Participle II = Past Part.

Continuous be + Ving = Participle I = Present Part.

Future Simple will + Vo

shall + Vo




Table 2.

Present Simple – I, We, You, They // She, He, It

| |

утверд. предлож. – Vo Vs



| |

вопросит. предлож. - Do… + Vo Does… + Vo

| |

oтрицат. предлож. - Do not + Vo Does not + Vo


Past Simple - утвердит. предлож. - V2 = Past form

вопросит. предлож. - Did… + Vo
отрицат. предлож. - Did not + Vo

Passive Voice (Страдательный Залог) образуется:

Table 3.

to be + Participle II( Past Part.)


Present Simple - am/ is/ are + done/ chosen/ written/ looked…
Past Simple - was/ were + done/ chosen/ written/ looked…

Table 4.
Оператор + to be + Participle II (Past Part.)

(в нужной форме)

Must be done

Should be written

Ought to be read

Is to be chosen


Have been done

Had been said


Will be informed

Am/ is/ are/ being discussed



ex. 1

Use the verbs in brackets in the right forms. Translate the sentences.


1. The attraction between the molecules (to neglect – Present Perfect).

2. The positive particle in the nucleus of the atom (to give - Past Simple) the name of "proton".

3. Some pressing problems (to discuss - Future Simple) at the conference.

4. Recent discoveries (to assist - Present Perfect) greatly by the development of the research technique.

5. Any deduction (to precede - Present Simple) usually by a number of experiments and observations.

6. We (to inform - Past Simple) that a new idea (to advance - Past Perfect) at the closing session.

7. The results (must/ to show - Present) in a simplified form.

8. All the papers (have to/ to present - Future Simple) on time.

9. All the papers (to present - Future Perfect) by next Monday.


Если в предложении употреблен страдательный залог с предлогом, то – (R.) начинайте перевод с предлога управления.


NB! Запомните:

agree on/upon – согласиться на

arrive at (a decision) – прийти к (решению)

bring about – вызывать, осуществлять

insist on/ upon – настаивать на

refer to – отсылать к, ссылаться на

refer to as - называться

rely on/upon – зависеть от, полагаться на

account for – объяснять, являться причиной

comment on/upon – комментировать что-то

deal with – иметь дело с, рассматривать, касаться

subject to – подвергать воздействию, оказывать воздействие на

touch on/upon – затрагивать, касаться


ex.2

Translate into Russian.


1. These properties are very rarely dealt with.

2. The substance wasn’t subjected to any changes.

3. His idea should be commented upon.

4. Can her words be relied upon?




ex.3

Translate into English.


1. На этот доклад часто ссылаются.

2. На некоторые данные нельзя полагаться, т.к. они очень ненадежные.

3. Об этом новом открытии много говорят.

4. Во время обсуждения этот вопрос не был затронут.

5. Условия договора не были согласованы заранее.

6. Эта теория может быть подвергнута критике.

7. Эти события были вызваны открытием радиоактивности.

8. Эти явления объяснялись выше (above) .


NB! Запомните:

to follow – (R) 1. следовать, идти за;

2. преследовать;

3. слушать, следить за словами;

4. придерживаться, пользоваться

(методом и т.д.);

5. разделять взгляды, быть

последователем;

6. сменить к-л, быть преемником.


ex.4

Translate the sentences.


1. These effects have not yet been followed.

2. He spoke so fast that nobody could follow him.

3. The progress of the reaction can be followed by measuring the total pressure.

4. The war was followed by the revolution.

5. The process of concentrating small amounts of radioelements may be very conveniently followed by measurements of radioactivity.

6. The method described above is the most accurate and should be followed.

7. The discussion will be followed by an interpretation of the actual curves.

NB! Запомните:
call/ give attention to – привлекать/ уделять внимание

make emphasis on - подчеркивать

make mention of – упоминать

make reference to – ссылаться

make use of – использовать

show preference to – ссылаться на, упоминать

take account of – учитывать

take care to do/ not to do – принимать меры предосторожности,

стараться

take care of – заботиться, учитывать, принять меры к тому,чтобы

take notice of – заметить, обращать внимание на

take steps to do – предпринимать меры

take advantage of – использовать

take measures – предпринимать меры

make measurements – проводить измерения

make an attempt to do smth – попытаться что-л сделать



ex.5

Translate the sentences:


1. Special attention has been called to the research work.

2. Use is made of a simple model of a molecule.

3. Steps are taken to diminish friction.

4. Account should be taken of the low melting point of the substance.

5. Advantage is often taken of the effect of temperature on solubility.

6. Care is to be taken to remove all the impurities.

7. Care is taken not to heat the substance.

8. An attempt was made to measure samples by immediately raising the temperature.

9. Attention was also given to the electron microscopic observation.

10. Emphasis is made on the evolution of the method.

ex.6

Translate the sentences. Use the following verbs in their passive forms:



to succeed, to influence, to attend, to affect.
1. На золото не оказывает никакого влияния влажность

2. На конференции присутствовали 27 астрономов.

3. Холод очень быстро воздействует на некоторые растения.

4. На скорость реакции влияет много факторов.

5. За первым открытием последовали другие.

ex.7

Translate the sentences:


1. It is believed that in many instances the explanations have been clarified.

2. None of the data on this state have been presented at the conference.

3. The experimental facts can be explained by this supposition.

4. A discussion of X-ray spectra has been omitted, as it can be found in almost any advanced text on physics.

5. The importance of water to living things is so evident, that it need not be insisted on here.

6. The invention of the nitrogen-filled lamps has been followed by the argon and neon lamps for special purposes.

7. The behaviour of a gas stream during expansion is influenced by a variety of circumstances.

8. The presence of slight traces of this substance in the atmosphere is accounted for by the action of ultraviolet light upon moist oxygen.

9. Many methods for detection of uranium have been proposed for use under various conditions and only a few can be referred to here.

10. The recognition that isotopes could exist was first forced upon chemists from the study of the radioactive elements.

11. Care must be taken in handling radioactive materials as painful and even dangerous burning may result from prolonged exposure to the rays.

12. Care should be taken in the laboratory not to inhale hydrogen sulphide.

13. Steps are taken to increase the production of our plants.

14. Chemical methods of purifying water are given much attention to at present.

15. The rate at which radioactive elements decompose is unaffected by change in temperature.

Unit 2.
MODAL VERBS

MUST
Должен, обязан, Должно быть, скорее

приходится делать… всего, я почти уверен…

Present must do must do

have to do must be doing

Past had to do must have done



CAN
Умеет, может, способен что-л сделать… Мог бы, возможно…

Present can do can/ could be

can/ could be doing

Past could do can/ could have done


Negative Не умел, не смог… Не может быть, чтобы

could not do cannot/ could not have done

BE ABLE TO

Суметь, смочь что-л сделать
Present am/is/ are able to do smth

Past was/were be aable to do smth

Future will be able to do smth

MAY


Разрешено, можно… Может быть,

существует вероятность
Present may do may/ might do

may/ might be done

Past allowed to do may/ might have done

let do


SHOULD/ OUGHT TO
Настойчивый совет, следует сделать…
Present should do

ought to do


Следовало бы сделать, но не сделано…
Past should have done

ought to have done


BE + TO INF.
По предварительному соглашению должен сделать…
Present am/ is/ are to do

Past was/ were to do



NEED

Modal verb Full verb

need do need to do
Не стоит этого делать… Нет необходимости это делать…
Present need not do do not need to do
Зря это было сделано, не Не было необходимости, и не делали…

стоило этого делать…
Past need not have done did not need to do
ex.1

Translate the sentences, explain your choice of modal verbs.

I.

1. Он не должен был сдавать экзамен в этом году, т.к. уже сдал его в прошлом.



2. Он не должен был сдавать экзамен в этом году, т.к. был очень плохо готов, и, конечно же, провалился.

3. Он теперь должен был работать сверхурочно (do overtime), т.к. не сделал работу вовремя.

4. Должно быть ему кто-то помогал, он бы сам не справился (cope with it).

5. Я должен ему помочь, просто должен.

6. Ты не должен сам печатать письма, это сделает секретарь.

7. Собрание начинается в 7, и ты не должен опоздать.

8. Я думаю, он должен прийти на собрание, он обещал.

9. Не должен я был приходить на это собрание, ничего интересного там не было.


II.

1. Говори громче, я тебя не слышу!

2. Я не знаю, сам ли он сделал эту работу. Может быть, ему кто-то помог.

3. У него хороший слух (good ear for music), и он мог стать музыкантом, но не стал.

4. Он мог играть на скрипке уже в 5 лет.

5. Ты можешь (разрешаю) взять пирожное, но только одно.

6. Ребёнок мог (разрешили) взять одно пирожное.

7. Он смог доплыть до берега, хотя почти не умел плавать.

8. Где он сейчас? – Не знаю, может быть он читает…

9. Не мог бы ты показать, как этот прибор работает?

ex.2

Translate the text. Explain your choice of modal verbs:


Пока меня не было дома, кто-то сломал мой ноутбук.

Что же могло случиться? Должно быть, младший брат играл на нем. C другой стороны, не может быть, чтобы он это сделал без моего разрешения.

Возможно, произошел скачок напряжения (abrupt voltage change). Мне надо было выключить компьютер из сети (unplug). Конечно, я знаю, что его всегда нужно выключать, если им не пользуются.

Боюсь, теперь придется покупать новый компьютер. Впрочем, я сначала должен поговорить со специалистами. Было бы очень хорошо, если бы они смогли починить (fix) его быстро, потому что через неделю я должен сдать (hand in) свою работу (project).

Видимо, все данные пропали, и мне вряд ли удастся их восстановить (recover). Если придется все делать с самого начала, то мне может не хватить времени.

Мой научный руководитель должен вернуться с конференции через пару дней. Думаю, нужно будет с ним поговорить, может что-нибудь посоветует. Хотя, конечно же, он скажет: ‘Не знаю, что тут можно сделать (do about it), экзамены нельзя отложить (put off). Зря ты начал работу так поздно, нужно было хранить информацию (data) на диске, и не надо обвинять брата. Ты сам должен быть внимательнее.’ Да, дела хуже некуда…


ex.3

Translate the sentences into Russian:


1. He can't have missed this show. He is absolutely mad about this

band.


2. Must you phone him now? It's night already.

3. He looks so miserable these days. He must have been dismissed from his post.

4. She is an actress and often stays unemployed, but now she must be

performing in some play.

5. Things couldn't have gone better, everybody was happy.

6. His translation is perfect. I'm afraid someone could have done it

for him.

7. He may be suspected of stealing the money and will have to be

interrogated.

8. I might have 3 days off at the end of the month.

9. What do you think could have caused the fire.

10. You should have informed the clients in advance. Why didn’t you

do that?

11. You needn't have taken so many warm clothes with you. The

weather is warm and sunny.

Ex. 4


This passage comes from “A Gentleman’s Guide to Modern Physics” by Otto H. Theimer. Read it and say what qualities you believe all creative thinkers will inevitably share and which ones you don’t regard as very important. Express your attitude through the use of modal verbs. Use linking words (see Unit 12). Add more ideas into your talk.

E.g.: - In my opinion, you cannot be trained to be creative, you must be born it.

Nevertheless, you should get a good University degree, though you don’t have to be a Ph.D. to devise something important.
Creative thinkers seem to possess the following characteristics in common:


  • an acutely sensitive awareness of their environment;

  • the ability to generate a large number of ideas in response to a given problem;

  • the ability to focus their faculties* in sustained concentration;

  • in most cases the creative individual’s work place is likely to be a cheerfully haphazard* conglomeration of complete disorder;

  • the majority of truly creative persons are introverts;

  • they tend to be much less concerned with what others think of them than most people are; also, they are often comparatively indifferent to clothing and appearance. Creative people do not seem to have a need to present themselves in a favorable light to others.

  • faculty – (formal) natural ability (mental faculties); skills that someone has (a great faculty for absorbing information)

  • haphazard (you read it ,hap’hazard ) – not organized or planned



ex.5

Translate the sentences:


1. The substance under investigation doesn’t need to be examined by chemical means.

2. Why should metals, even in the solid state, be excellent conductors of electricity, whereas salts ordinarily need to be melted before they will conduct?

3. One should keep in mind that the accuracy of Ohm’s law fails for certain solutions when alternating currents of very high frequency are employed.

4. In order that this reaction should be valid two conditions must be observed.

5. It was already indicated that we should stop further discussion of the physical character of atoms.

6.That process had to have been helped along by cold dark matter, which is made up of huge clouds of particles that are detectable only through their gravitational effects.



Unit 3.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

IF- clause …, MAIN clause…/ that- clause

Present – V2 would/ should / could / might + Vo

e.g.: e.g.:

looked/ worked/ did/ taught… would look/ should teach/

was/ were could be


Past - V3 would/ could/ should + have V3

e.g.: e.g.:

had looked/ had worked/ had done/ would have done/ should have taught/

had taught/ had been… could have been…

ex. 1


Translate the sentences.
1. Если бы эксперимент прошел удачно, мы бы уже a) сидели и писали статью в журнал; b) уже давно написали бы эту статью.

2. У нас всегда не хватает каких-нибудь материалов. Если бы у нас было все необходимое, мы бы уже начали эксперименты.

3. У нас сломалась установка (facility). Если бы этого не произошло, то мы бы уже закончили испытания.

4. Жаль (wish), что я согласился делать этот доклад.

5. Хорошо бы (wish), чтобы на заседании на мой доклад не хватило времени.

6. На твоем месте я бы с ним не ссорился, он единственный человек, кто мог бы нас поддержать (back up).

7. У нее такая маленькая зарплата. Если бы она умела работать с компьютером, то могла бы найти более интересную работу.

8. Если бы он после школы пошел в университет, а не на работу, то уже в будущем году заканчивал бы его.



NB! Запомните:
Эти выражения употребляются с should + inf., однако should может опускаться.

it is necessary that – необходимо, чтобы

it is important that – важно, чтобы

it is of importance that

it is essential that – существенно, чтобы

it is desirable that – желательно, чтобы

it is likely that – вероятно, что

it is unlikely that – маловероятно, что

it is probable that – возможно, что

ex.2


Translate into English.

1. Важно, чтобы все пришли.

2. Маловероятно, что они согласятся.

3. Возможно, они присоединятся к нам.

4. Существенно, чтобы температура не менялась.

5. Желательно, чтобы оборудование было новым.





Слова” lest” и “unless” несут отрицательный смысл.

Другого отрицания в предложении не будет!


NB! Запомните:

I. as if/ as though – как если бы

so that – для того, чтобы

lest – чтобы не

II. if – если

in case – в случае если

provided, provided that, providing, providing that - если

on condition, on condition that – при условии, что

even though – даже если

suppose, supposing - предположим

unless – если не

ex.3

Translate into English.


1. Ecли ты с ним не поговоришь, мы не узнаем правду.

2. Если ты с ним поговоришь, мы узнаем правду.

3. Поговори со специалистом, чтобы не сделать ошибки.

4. Поговори со специалистом, чтобы знать как поступить.



ex.4

Translate the sentences.


1. If the acid were purified the reaction would take place.

2. We must keep this gas in a special vessel lest it be evaporated.

3. It is necessary that the type of the reaction be determined.

4. It is suggested that only logarithmic plots for each point be made.

5. It is essential that the substance be chemically pure.

6. If there were no air the stone and the piece of paper would fall together.

7. It is desirable that this method should be recommended.

8. This would result in hydrogen production reaction taking place.

9. The world itself behaves as if it were an enormous but weak magnet.

10. The geometric properties of crystal are the same whether a crystal be large or small.

11. Magnetism is often treated as if it were a subject as fundamental as electricity.

12. If the model fits well, the observed data will be correct.

13. Unless computer techniques had been developed, space research would have never made such great progress.

14. If the life had come to the so-called equilibrium, it would never have progressed beyond amoeba.

15. A valuable contribution would be made, if considerable efforts were devoted to the theoretic examination.

16. Unless the widening were small, this spectrum would not be very faint compared with others.

17. It is natural that aluminium should receive a great amount of attention from research workers with the view to improving the mechanical properties of the metal.


.
Предложения с инверсией переводятся на русский язык полным предложением


NB! Запомните:

Если бы…
If it were done = Were it done

If it had happened = Had it happened

If it should happen = Should it happen

If it were to happen = Were it to happen



NB! Запомните:

Если бы не…

But for


Present Past
If it were not for (him, her…) If it had not been for (him, her…)

Were it not for… Had it not been for…



ex.5

Translate the sentences.


1. Were one electron removed, a net positive charge would be left.

2. Had the degree of evaporation been high, the salinity of water would have been rising.

3. But for radioastronomy, we should have never made the remarkable discoveries in the Universe.

4. There would be no increase in current at all, were it not for a small effect of voltage.

5. Should it be desirable to divide these two substances, several ways are possible.

6. Should your work meet these conditions, it will be of great service to our industry.

7. Had it not been for a large size of this body, we should have already weighed it on our scales.

8. But for space meteorological stations we would not be able to observe the formation of hurricanes.

9. Had this warning been needed, the reaction might have taken quite a different turn.

10. Providing that a profound change were to occur, slip (скольжение) ought to take place along the direction of maximum stress (линия максимальной нагрузки).

11. When an object is dropped it seems to go faster at least if it be large and massive.

12. If two hydrogen atoms were to collide each should obtain an additional electron.

13. Should the content of this volume prove of any assistance to the students, the author will feel completely rewarded.

14. But for the luminosity of this substance it would be difficult to detect its properties.

15. If concentrated sulphuric acid be mixed with hydrogen at low temperature to prevent heating, oxygen rich in ozone is evolved.

Revise Units 1, 2, 3.
1. Let us picture what ought to happen provided there were a conducting wire

between two points of unequal potentials.

2. In order that the compound might be used it had to be purified.

3. If we had a really pure insulator it could not be heated.

4. No fuel would burn in an atmosphere deprived of its oxygen.

5. First of all it should be emphasized that atoms and molecules are infinitely small, so small that it is really impossible for us to appreciate their masses.

6. The velocities are greatest in solids, which is what one would expect since their elasticities are normally higher than those of liquids or gases.

7. In order that a compound be in the large number of substances termed acids, it must have the following properties.

8. A gas in the normal state conducts electricity to a slight extent, however small the electric force may be.

9. Do not expose this compound to the air, lest it should decompose.

10. Unless the cathode is water cooled, it will overheat and emit gases.

11. It would be worthwhile investigating the substance mentioned, provided we could get it in sufficient quantity.

12. If the entire Earth were covered by ocean, high and low tides would follow one another at regular intervals in response to the rotation of the Earth and the revolution of the Moon.

13. If we were to stand motionless and hold a weight in our arms, we would grow tired, but we would not be performing work in physical sense of the term.

14. If the neutron and proton had the same mass, and if the Coulomb energy were completely negligible, there should be a definite correlation between the energy levels of isobars [‘aisэba:].

Unit 4.
VERBALS, GENERAL PRESENTATION

Before starting this theme let us revise the basics.

Table 1.
The structure of the sentence in the English language.

0 – 4 1 2 3 4 – 0



Обстоя- + подлежащ. + сказуемое + дополнение + обстоят.

тельство

| | | | |

времени, + отвечает на + отвечает на + прямое, см. 0-4

условия, вопрос вопрос косвенное ‘где?, когда?, при

цели ‘кто, что?’ ‘что делает?’ ‘кого, что, каком условии?

кому, о чем?’ почему?’

| | | | |

Yesterday we started an experiment (yesterday).

At 5 o’clock they will phone him at home (at 5).

- We live - in Moscow .


Table 2.
the Infinitive --- the Participle I, II --- the Gerund

| | | |


Глагол - to do doing done doing - Существ.,

Образуются как глаголы Функции в предл. как у существитель-

ного и прилагательного

| |


1. вид – Simple, Cont., Perfect 1. подлежащее,

/ \ \ 2. часть сказуемого,

2. время – будущ., настоящ.,прошед. 3. дополнение,

3. залог – Passive, Active 4. определение,

5. обстоятельство.

ex.1

Translate the sentences. When translating focus on how different parts of speech are used as the same parts of the sentence.

1. Using this method may result in new possibilities. (подлежащее)

2. To use this technique means to put a lot of effort into the work. (подлеж.)

3. His constantly speaking about it annoyed me. (подлеж.)

4. We are to discuss this method in detail. (часть сказуемого)

5. They are talking about it right now. (часть сказ.)

6. The study to be discussed was written by Dr.N. (определение)

7. The paper written by Dr.N. must be published soon. (определение)

8. The experiment being made now is important. (определение)

9. To be given this job you must have necessary qualifications. (обстоятельство)

10. Having applied for the job he decided to improve his computer skills. (обстоятельство)

11. Given these data we can go on with the experiment. (обстоятельство)

12. Without being given these data they were not able to… (обстоятельство)

13. She hates being interrupted. (дополнение)

14. I am glad to have been warned in advance. (дополнение)

15. Everybody would like to have a swim in such hot weather. (дополнение)

ex.2

What parts of the sentence the verbals used in the sentences are? Translate the sentences.


1. To explain this simple fact is not easy.

2. New sources of cheap energy are to be found.

3. There are many problems to be solved.

4. They are likely to have completed the work.

5. The substance being investigated is new.

6. The heated object became red-hot.

7. Being invited too late he could not go to the conference.

8. Having made the measurements the experimenter processed the data.

9. Having been heated for several hours the substance began to melt.

10. My colleague being away, I had to take the decision myself.

11. The signal given, the rocket starts immediately.

12. Metals cannot be dissolved without being changed into new substances.

13. Dr.Brown’s being absent was very strange.

Unit 5.


`

INFINITIVE

Study the tables and revise what you have learned from Unit 4.




Table 1.

Forms of the Infinitive.

Form Active Voice Passive Voice


Simple to give to be given

Continuous to be giving -

Perfect to have given to have been given
Table 2.

Parts of the sentence.

Члены предложения Примеры

------------------------------------------------------------

Подлежащее 1. To know everything about this event is absolutely

necessary.
Часть сказуемогo 2. He is to return very soon.

3. His intention is to complete the task.

Дополнение 4. She wants to know everything.
Определение 5. The problem to be discussed isn’t easy.

Обстоятельство 6. To know everything about the event you

will need to ask people a lot of questions.



  1. Инфинитив в начале предложения

| |

подлежащее обстоятельство – (R.) что делать, что – ( R.) чтобы, для того чтобы

1.1. To deal with this substance will be really important. (Иметь дело… будет…)

1.2. To give a true picture of the surrounding matter is the task of natural science. (Составить картину… является задачей…)

1.3. To understand this phenomenon is to understand the structure of atoms. (Понять или понимание… означает…)

1.4. To understand this phenomenon the laws of motion should be considered. (Чтобы понять…, нужно рассмотреть…)

1.5. To see the difference, look at the graph. (Чтобы понять…, посмотрите…)

1.6. To test the accuracy of the method they conducted a number of tests. (Чтобы проверить…, они провели…)


NB! Запомните:

in order (to) – для того чтобы

so as (to) – так чтобы, с тем чтобы

so … as (to) – так (такой, настолько)…, что (чтобы)

1.7. In order to understand the procedure, consider the following analogy.

(чтобы …)

1.8. It has become possible to modify this method so as to make it easier

to use. (c тем, чтобы…)

1.9. This method was so complicated as to give only little result.

(…настолько сложен, что давал…)





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