В статье рассматривается сравнительный аспект категории падежа в казахском и английском языках, а также существующие теории о категории падежа в английском языке



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Grammar is the science of the internal structure of language

ENGLISH AND KAZAKH CASE CATEGORIES: WAYS OF TRANSMISSION, SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES


Mynbayeva N.S.
(Supervisor, candidate of philological sciences, professor is Kakzhanova F.A.) Karaganda University named after Academician E.A. Buketov,
Karaganda, Republic of Kazakhstan


Annotation. В статье рассматривается сравнительный аспект категории падежа в казахском и английском языках, а также существующие теории о категории падежа в английском языке. Существует метод перевода агглютинативных казахских падежей в аналитический английский язык.


Relevance of the research problem. The category of cases is always relevant. Therefore, in addition to the peculiarities of the formation of auxiliaries in the English and Kazakh languages, it is necessary to study in more depth the groups of cases.
This is due to the fact that scientists have a lot of opinions and definitions about the case category. For example, while some researchers believe that English case is divided into two or four groups, others believe that there are two or more types of cases, and one of them does not exist at all. There are many problems in this regard.
Materials and research methodology. Scientific description of the topic, historical-comparative method, collection, analysis of viewpoints and, distributive, transformational methods.
Research results. Grammar is the science of the internal structure of language. Each language has its own grammar. For example, the grammar of the Kazakh language has three branches. They are: morphology, syntax, word formation. The category of case belongs to the morphological and syntactic spheres.
The role of nouns in grammatical categories is enormous. It is also one of the main problems in the study of the grammatical structure of the language. This is because this category is a grammatical index that connects and connects words in a sentence. In general, the various patterns of development, phenomena, any changes in the vocabulary of the language have a special place in its history. One of them is ancient monuments. The suffixes of the Turkic languages ​​in the language of the monuments of the V-VIII centuries are numerous in terms of classification and use of grammatical functions of the same category in the language of the monuments of the last X-XV centuries. Thus, if we compare the two-stage phenomena, we can see the following difference, for instance: There are seven types of cases in the Kazakh language. And now there are two groups of them: a) grammatical cases; b) volumetric cases. Their questions and connections are different. Grammatical cases include: nominative (Who? What?), possessive (Whose? What?), accusative (Whom? What?). These are closely related to the material meaning and function and semantics (meaning). Volumetric cases consist of dative case (Whom? What?), locative case (Whom? What? Where?), elative case (From whom? From what? Where?), instrumental case (With whom? With what?). They occur not only in the material sense, but also in the volumetric, directional, spatial, temporal, causal, instrumental sense.
As for the English language, there are a few theories of case category. They are: prepositional theory, positional theory and limited theory. If we look at each theory individually, we see its own phenomena and indicators. For example: prepositional theory means that there are given prepositions in English along with prepositions; in the positional theory said that prepositions are used with the help of the position of the members of the sentence. The last theory is called limited, there is no inflection, that is why there are only two cases.
Kazakh belongs to the Altai group of Turkic languages. English is one of the oldest languages ​​belonging to the West German Indo-European language group. Due to the formation of grammatical structure in the period of synchrony, English is an analytical language, while Kazakh is one of the agglutinative languages. Analytical language is mainly based on auxiliary words. However, part of the synthetic identity remains in the diachrony. Those scenes can still be seen in English. There are only a few reasons for this during the period of diachrony. This is because the ancient category of septic was lost in the Middle Ages, or during the period of equation. Suffixes and suffixes in agglutinative languages ​​are common and can be connected one after the other after the root. No matter how much the root is connected, it retains its independence and does not change. This feature continues to this day in the inscriptions on the monuments of the Orkhon-Yenisei. Therefore, these languages ​​are more different than similar. So, let's make a comparison process of case category in the Kazakh and English languages.
In the Middle English period, the simplification of the morphology of nouns in various ways and degrees had a direct impact on the grammatical categories of nouns.
A.I. Smirnitsky notes that the case category has been preserved, but has undergone significant changes. In the Early Middle English period, the number of cases decreased from 4 (nominative, possessive, dative, accusative) to 2 (nominative and possessive).
In the Early Middle English period, nominative and possessive cases were combined in both singular and plural forms. In some southern dialects, the dative case (барыс септігі) can be identified by the suffix -e. However, soon the dative case’s attachments began to spread. Thus, in the Old English language nominative, dative, accusative cases, all came together and became known as "the common cases." B.A. According to Ilyish, the possessive case is distinguished from the individual and plural forms. In the XVI century, the suffix -es became universal, and there is one peculiarity: nouns are used mainly in the invariant form (stereotypical phrases, names associated with relationships ending in -r). In the plural form, there is not a single special sign, and even with the connection - e (-s) it is indistinguishable from common case. Such suffixes are used in dialects of the northern and central regions of the country. For instance, the plural form of the possessive case in Old English: -ena, while in medieval English the suffix -en (e) was used by the early Middle English only in the southern regions of the country. The formal difference of the plural form of the preposition has disappeared, except for nouns ending in the plural form - (e) s. With the ending of some nouns with a weak plural form - en or variable vowels (for example: in the nouns oxen, men) are added suffixes of the possessive case - e (-s).
In the XVII-XVIII centuries, K. Brunner introduced a new graphic identifier - apostrophe (‘). For example: man's, children's. However, this determinant can only be used in writing (speaking).
Gradual reduction of the auxiliary system:




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